Academic writing refers to a particular style of expression that researchers use to define the intellectual boundaries of their disciplines and their areas of expertise. It is characterized by a formal tone, use of the third-person rather than first-person perspective (usually), a clear focus on the research problem under investigation, and precise word choice. Being a specialist language, academic writing is designed to convey agreed meaning about complex ideas or concepts for a group of scholarly experts.
Adapted from Academic Writing. Writing Center. Colorado Technical College;
To refresh, review, and test your knowledge of academic writing, please complete the Online Tutorial of Effective Writing Practices developed by Northern Illinois University. This self-paced tutorial covers the topics of grammar, punctuation, organization, and style, and it allows you to test your knowledge of each topic. Completing this tutorial is for your benefit; neither user data nor quiz scores are collected.
2. The Hixon Writing Center (HWC) at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) has produced a set of six videos titled "An Introduction to College Writing" that is useful to anyone who wants to learn more about academic writing.
As part of Caltech's series on college writing, HWC created the following excellent introduction to academic writing:
A PDF version of this booklet is provided below:
A PDF version of this article is provided below:
3. In a recent study, posted on bioRxiv (The Preprint Server for Biology), researchers found that "the readability of science is steadily decreasing," which hinders the scientific process by limiting accessibility and reproducibility.
A PDF version of this preprint article is provided below:
Denis Dutton, longtime editor of Philosophy and Literature, chronicled bad academic writing as a hobby. You will benefit from reading the following examples of how NOT to write your thesis and/or doctoral dissertation!
1. In her blog, Explorations of Style, Rachael Cayley provides readers with "an ongoing discussion of the challenges of academic writing" by discussing "strategies to improve the process of expressing our research in writing," with the ultimate goal of creating "a working approach to academic writing."
2. In its podcast, The Written Word, Turnitin explores all things writing and their impact on our lives.
YouTube description: "What's 'academic writing'? If you're in school or university, you must know the difference between general English and academic English. Watch this important lesson to avoid the most common mistakes students make in academic writing. ..."
These resources will help you succeed in graduate school:
Managing your time is critical for success in graduate school; these resources are designed to help you manage your time effectively:
Reading lots, lots, and lots of scholarly literature is required in graduate school; these resources (videos) are designed to show you how to read faster, more efficiently and effectively:
These resources will help you write a successful academic paper:
Amherst College Writing Center: Online Resources for Writers
George Mason University Writing Center: Quick Guides
Harvard College Writing Center: Writing Resources
Northern Illinois University Writing Center: Resources for Writers
Penn State Graduate Writing Center: Writing Resources
University of Hawai'i-West O'ahu: UHWO Composition Resources
University of Houston-Clear Lake Writing Center: Writing Resources
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Center for Writing Studies: Writing Tips
University of Nevada, Reno: Writing Resources
BLUF (Bottom Line Up Front) is a writing strategy used extensively across the U.S. military for efficient communication.
1. According to the Thou Shalt Not Commit Logical Fallacies website, "A logical fallacy is a flaw in reasoning. Logical fallacies are like tricks or illusions of thought, and they're often very sneakily used by politicians and the media to fool people." This website provides definitions and examples of various logical fallacies.
A PDF version of a logical fallacies poster is provided below:
2. Unlike logical fallacies, which are flaws in our argumentation, cognitive biases are flaws in our thinking or judgment that arise from errors of memory, social attribution, and miscalculations. The Royal Society of Account Planning has produced a visual study guide to help you memorize all the cognitive biases.
A PDF version of the visual study guide is provided below, as well as PDF versions of other lists of cognitive biases:
On pages 65-66 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.), APA (2010) states that you should use verb tenses consistently:
Past tense or present perfect tense is appropriate for the literature review and the description of the procedure if the discussion is of past events. Stay within the chosen tense. Use past tense to describe the results. Use the present tense to discuss implications of the results and to present the conclusions.
Refer to the following training module for more help: