GRADE: Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE Working Group)
“The GRADE working group began in the year 2000 as an informal collaboration of people with an interest in addressing the shortcomings of present grading systems in health care. Our aim is to develop a common, sensible approach to grading quality of evidence and strength of recommendation.”
Downs & Black checklist
The feasibility of creating a checklist for the assessment of the methodological quality of both randomized and non-randomized studies of health care interventions. J Epidemiol Community Health 1998; 52:377-84.
Development of Quality Criteria To Evaluate Nontherapeutic Studies of Incidence, Prevalence, or Risk Factors of Chronic Diseases: Pilot Study of New Checklists (US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality [AHRQ])
Criteria for Distinguishing Effectiveness from Efficacy Trials in Systematic Reviews (US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality [AHRQ])
“To propose and test a simple instrument based on seven criteria of study design to distinguish effectiveness (pragmatic) from efficacy (explanatory) trials while conducting systematic reviews.”
The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomised studies in meta-analyses
“Nonrandomised studies, including case-control and cohort studies, can be challenging to implement and conduct. Assessment of the quality of such studies is essential for a proper understanding of nonrandomised studies. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) is an ongoing collaboration between the Universities of Newcastle, Australia and Ottawa, Canada.” A copy of the scale in both Word and PDF may be found on the page. Unless otherwise noted by the authors, this scale has not been empirically tested.
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